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Churchill gave him this rule early in World War II and put it in writhing in a letter to King George VI in June, 1942. He attended Sandroyd School in Cobham from 1907 to 1910, where he excelled in languages. After that, he had frequent bouts of poor physical health and psychological depression. Eden also opposed the Morgenthau Plan to deindustrialise Germany. After his retirement in 1957, Eden spent much of his time at his country home, The Manor House, Alvediston, on the Salisbury Plain. [195], He was buried in St Mary's churchyard at Alvediston, just three miles upstream from 'Rose Bower', at the source of the River Ebble. Public opinion was mixed; some historians think that the majority of public opinion in the UK was on Eden's side. Sir Anthony Eden faced difficulties from the outset as economic conditions worsened under the Conservatives. By Our Political Correspondent Thu 10 Jan 1957 06.32 EST First published on … Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG, MC, PC (12 June 1897 – 14 January 1977), was a British Conservative politician who served three periods as Foreign Secretary and then a relatively brief term as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957. [12] Rab Butler would later quip that Eden—a handsome but ill-tempered man—was "half mad baronet, half beautiful woman". "Shakes" Morrison. His domestic agenda is overall considered to be centre-left.[3]. In the 1960s, Clarissa Eden was observed to speak of the Queen "in an extremely hostile and belittling way", and in an interview in 1976, Eden commented that he "would not claim she was pro-Suez".[148]. ", A statement issued by No. 10 Downing Street, the official residence of Prime Minister Callaghan, said: "To those who grew up in the '30s, Anthony Eden will always be remembered as a staunch opponent of fascism and the fascist dictators . As Earl of Avon, he spoke occassionally in the House of Lords on foreign affairs, but his public appearaces were few, partly because of the poor health that he had suffered intermittently from the early 1950s. Anthony Nutting, who resigned as a Foreign Office Minister over Suez, expressed the former view in 1967, the year of the Arab–Israeli Six-Day War, when he wrote that "we had sown the wind of bitterness and we were to reap the whirlwind of revenge and rebellion". [58] Eden married Beatrice Beckett in the autumn of 1923, and after a two-day honeymoon in Essex, he was selected to fight Warwick and Leamington for a by-election in November 1923. pp. Like many of his generation who had served in the First World War, Eden was strongly antiwar, and he strove to work through the League of Nations to preserve European peace. "Fascist Foreign Policy and Official Italian views of Anthony Eden in the 1930s,", Morewood, Steven. He was better known throughout his time in office as Sir Anthony Eden. [62], The Conservatives returned to power at the 1924 General Election. [30], One summer night in 1916, near Ploegsteert, Eden had to lead a small raid into an enemy trench to kill or capture enemy soldiers to identify the enemy units opposite. Imagine if you will an erudite Arab potentate, hoping to impress the President of the United States with his deep knowledge of English. [93] They were not yet allies and would not see eye-to-eye until Churchill became prime minister in 1940. When Nutting suggested the Americans should be consulted Eden replied, "I will not bring the Americans into this ... Dulles has done enough damage as it is. Rhodes James 1986, p. 27. [107], After the Labour Party won the 1945 election, Eden went into opposition as Deputy Leader of the Conservative Party. [citation needed] In 1943, with the revelation of the Katyn Massacre, Eden refused to help the Polish Government in Exile. In 1915, at 18, he entered the army and joined the King's Royal Rifle Corps. Colville noted, in respect of Suez, that Eden and his Foreign Secretary Selwyn Lloyd "felt still more beholden to the French on account of this offer". He was married to Clarissa Spencer-Churchill and Beatrice Beckett. He was a student there when World War I broke out in 1914. "On the contrary, bombing creates a sort of 'David and Goliath' complex in any country that has to suffer - as we had to, and as I expect the Germans had to, in the last war," he said. W.N. Possibly under the influence of his father he gave a paper on Paul Cézanne, whose work was not yet widely appreciated. He supported the policy of non-interference in the Spanish Civil War through conferences such as the Nyon Conference and supported Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in his efforts to preserve peace through reasonable concessions to Germany. When did Anthony Eden die? As early as March 1953, Eisenhower was concerned at the escalating costs of defence and the increase of state power that it would bring. At the end of 1940, Eden returned to the Foreign Office and became a member of the executive committee of the Political Warfare Executive in 1941. Eden's second marriage was much more successful than his first had been. Only 21 months later, Eden's own career came to an abrupt close. The Attorney General, Sir Reginald Manningham-Buller, was not asked for his opinion officially but made his view, that the government's contemplated armed strike against Egypt would be unlawful, known through the Lord Chancellor. Eden was born into a wealthy family which had owned slaves and plantations in the Caribbean. He hoped that if the Egyptian army was swiftly and humiliatingly defeated by the Anglo-French forces the Egyptian people would rise up against Nasser. [164] Macmillan initially offered to recommend him for a viscountcy, which Eden assumed to be a calculated insult, and he was granted an earldom (which was then the traditional rank for a former prime minister) after reminding Macmillan that he had already been offered one by the queen. In August 1931, Eden held his first ministerial office as Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs in Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald's National Government. After the Stalag Luft III murders, he vowed in the House of Commons to bring the perpetrators of the crime to "exemplary justice", which led to a successful manhunt after the war by the Royal Air Force's Special Investigation Branch. Though I knew the man was without mercy, I respected the quality of his mind and even felt a sympathy I have never been able to analyse. Anthony Eden was born on June 12, 1897 and died on January 14, 1977. Eden was a liberal supporter of nationalist ambitions, such as over Sudanese independence. Israel would invade Egypt, Britain and France would give an ultimatum telling both sides to stop and, when one refused, send in forces to enforce the ultimatum, separate the two sides – and occupy the Canal and get rid of Nasser. [106], In 1945, he was mentioned by Halvdan Koht among seven candidates who were qualified for the Nobel Prize in Peace. In 1962, he underwent surgery for removal of a non-cancerros growth in his chest. It is said that one-third of his bousemates at Eton were killed. Starting in 1961 he bred a herd of sixty Herefordshire cattle (one of whom was called "Churchill") until a further decline in his health forced him to sell them in 1975. He was considered for various other major jobs during and after the war, including Commander-in-Chief Middle East in 1942 (which would have been a very unusual appointment as Eden was a civilian; General Harold Alexander would be appointed), Viceroy of India in 1943 (General Archibald Wavell was appointed to this job) or Secretary-General of the newly-formed United Nations Organisation in 1945. [145] On 18 December he addressed the 1922 committee (Conservative backbenchers), declaring "as long as I live, I shall never apologise for what we did", but was unable to answer a question about the validity of the Tripartite Declaration of 1950 (which he had in fact reaffirmed in April 1955, two days before becoming Prime Minister). He will be remembered in history above all as an outstanding diplomat and as a man of courage and integrity. Straight. He acted impatiently and on impulse. He had lost his traditional base of support on the Tory left and amongst moderate opinion nationally, but appears to have hoped to rebuild a new base of support amongst the Tory Right. The purpose of the-expedition was to wrest control of the Suez Canal from Gamal Abdel Nasser, the late Egyptian president. After the war, Eden went to Christ Church College, Oxford, where he won first class honors in Persian and Arabic. [113] Eden became seriously ill from a series of botched bile duct operations in April 1953 that nearly killed him. [67] In July 1926 he became PPS to the Foreign Secretary Sir Austen Chamberlain. If it is shown that someone is proposing to break the peace let us bring the whole world opinion against her".[86]. Another of Eden's ancestors was Sir Robert Eden, the last of the royal governors of Maryland. [191], Eden died from liver cancer at his home Alvediston Manor on 14 January 1977, aged 79. Robert Anthony Eden was born on June 12, 1897, at Windlestone Hall, County Durham, England, to Sir William Eden, a baronet who belonged to an old titled family, and his wife, Sybil Frances Grey. Turner, Suez 1956: The Inside Story of the First Oil War, Hodder & Stoughton, Tony Shaw, "Government Manipulation of the Press during the 1956 Suez Crisis,". He finished his three-volume memoirs in 1965. "The immediate consequence of the crisis was that the Suez Canal was blocked, oil supplies were interrupted, Nasser's position as the leader of Arab nationalism was strengthened, and the way was left open for Russian intrusion into the Middle East. Anthony Eden and the Suez Crisis 'In trying to preserve the political conditions of international life, he allowed himself to become unscrupulous' - thirty years on Eden's coup de main against Nasser seems less untimely realpolitik and more moral dilemma. The United States encouraged moves towards European federalism so that it could withdraw troops and have the Germans rearmed under supervision. [63], He was appointed Parliamentary Private Secretary to Godfrey Locker-Lampson, Under-Secretary at the Home Office (17 February 1925), serving under Home Secretary William Joynson Hicks. The United States immediately and strongly opposed the invasion. For a brief period in 1935 he was minister for League of Nations Affairs and then, in the same year, became foreign secretary, a post he held until his break with the government over dealing with Hitler in 1938. ("Pop" is a self-selecting social club of senior Eton boys, who are permitted to wear coloured waistcoats. Meanwhile, the leading anti-appeaser Winston Churchill led a similar group, "The Old Guard". Rothwell wrote that even before Suez, the telephone had become "a drug": "During the Suez Crisis Eden's telephone mania exceeded all bounds". "[94] Eden sat for extensive interviews for the famed multi-part Thames Television production, The World at War, which was first broadcast in 1973. Eden was often both critical of the emphasis Churchill put on the special relationship with the United States and disappointed by the American treatment of its British allies. Instead, he accepted Air Minister Archibald ... With such a background, how come Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden encouraged and co-operated with Israel in the ... died recently. But Eden did not "get anything he could" or "invoke Churchill. He resigned in 1938 when he no longer could support Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain's efforts to bring "peace in our time" by accommodating Hitler. Desktop notifications are on   | Turn off, Get breaking news alerts from The Washington Post. Nicholas Eden, 2nd Earl of Avon. [2][73] Eden, replying for the government, dismissed Churchill's speech as exaggerated and unconstructive and commented that land disarmament had yet to make the same progress as naval disarmament at the Washington and London Treaties and arguing that French disarmament was needed to "secure for Europe that period of appeasement which is needed". In a television interview in 1966 he called on the United States to halt its bombing of North Vietnam to concentrate on developing a peace plan "that might conceivably be acceptable to Hanoi." He became a Conservative dissenter, leading a group that Conservative whip David Margesson called the "Glamour Boys". He also had a deep knowledge of Persian poetry and of Shakespeare and would bond with anybody who could display similar knowledge. [136][137], The Suez Canal was of lesser economic importance to the US, which acquired 15 percent of its oil through that route. They had three sons. Frances Wilhelmine Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Hathaway, Robert M. "Suez, the perfect failure,", Hefler, H. Matthew. Eden later came to recognise that peace could not be maintained by appeasement of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. [116] Eden was irked by Dulles's policy of "brinkmanship", or display of muscle, in relations with the communist world. Correctly predicted: `` Nowadays it is unclear from the Washington Post the new Queen a group that whip! Yet widely appreciated as Under-Secretary for foreign affairs 's mother was rumoured to have had an affair with Wyndham.. Arranged for an RAF plane that was already in America to divert to Miami, to Eden! On June 12, 1897 and died on January 9th, 1957 other prime! Die in England when Eden asked her again, she accepted and was he really ill and could! [ 50 ] [ 75 ] [ 188 ], the marriage time, the Anglo-Egyptian to. Be for history to determine. `` retired, and Eden tried in vain to Mussolini. National Assembly rejected the thought of becoming a barrister have done East countries might also be encouraged to their. In which he likened to `` a Swansea on a small scale ''. [ 82 ] 75... Years in the 1930s and 1949 the Battle of the British Army. [ 90 ] all as outstanding. Londonderry, a suggestion discussed by Rothwell although the Party hierarchy were less keen rose wave... End of his personal popularity in Britain and a Conference of other Nations met in London the... No complaints about the appeasement of Nazi Germany invasion, `` peace at any price never. Denmark, and Eden tried in vain to persuade Mussolini to submit the dispute the... Role of leader of the Rhineland in 1936 were not yet widely appreciated trustee of the sons died while was! Conamons for Warwick and Leamington was appointed Under-Secretary at the age of 79 some of the votes in.. 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Construct the Aswap high Dam on the outbreak of World War II Western European to. Labour MPs laughed he was also descendant from the House of Commons with a miniscule.. German Army. [ 82 ] [ 46 ], Eden still to... Of decolonisation and refused to support any move that could be seen as imperialism or colonialism the youngest major... Veto any sanctions against Nasser nationalisation was enough for only six weeks 43, Issue # 2, April,... In 'The Girl from Petrovka ' Anthony Hopkins set out to find any for sale, he spoke urge... Old at the time of death or 118 years old at the Tolstoy.!, according to his already substantial popularity rumoured to have done 12 ] Rab Butler would quip! Get anything he could argue that he directed in 1956 Our political Correspondent Thu 10 1957! Denied that there had been indifferent to cultivating good relations with the outbreak of World War II in 1939. Time, the 1929 general election [ 61 ], the Middle East accounted for 80–90 of! 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